Portsdown hardware

From BATC Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

This section of the user guide describes the hardware and interconnections required for the Portsdown transmitter.

Not all the hardware is required before the transmitter can start to be tested – an incremental approach is described here to allow constructors to gain confidence as they assemble the parts. More concise shopping lists are provided here: https://wiki.batc.tv/DATV_Equipment_Shopping_List. Each component that you need is described in more detail here - underneath the description in the quote box, suggested suppliers are listed.


G4KLB Portsdown.png


G4KLB Portsdown IMG 3067.JPG


Portsdown DATV transmitter built by Colin G4KLB in a Farnell case  


Raspberry Pi 3

The first item required is the Raspberry Pi 3.

Raspberry Pi 3: CPC Farnell http://cpc.farnell.com/mksp2-raspberry-pi

Power Supplies

You will also need a 5v power supply for the Raspberry Pi, and a low resistance Micro-USB supply lead (some cheap ones are not so good).

You should power the RPi through the Micro-USB power connector to take advantage of the input protection provided. Use a very short USB cable to your power supply as most of these cables are of very poor quality and cause significant voltage drop. If you see a "Lightning Flash" symbol at the top right of your LCD display it means that the voltage at the RPi is too low. You can measure the voltage between the GPIO connector pins 4 and 6.

Flash.jpg

A lot of strange problems, such as the Portsdown running very slowly, can be caused by poor PSU volts - the Rpi3 is actually specced for 5.1 volts, make sure your PSU delivers enough volts and current. See this post on the BATC forum for a real user experience!

You will also need a 12 volt DC supply to power the other Portsdown components.

Micro-SD Card

You then need an SD card with the Portsdown software on it.

The easiest way is to buy a pre-programmed SD Card from the BATC Shop. (Item 1 in the Portsdown list).

OR if you want to have a go at loading the software yourself you will need to or purchase a good quality card (such as an 8GB SanDisk Ultra) from another source and follow the instructions described here.

SanDisk Ultra 8 GB Micro-SD Card: Amazon https://www.amazon.co.uk/s/?ie=UTF8&keywords=micro+sd+8gb+ultra

Once you have a card you will need to follow the initial set up guide



This is the minimum hardware configuration you need for testing the Portsdown transmitter! You can use an external PC to control the Portsdown in Console mode and run the QPSKRF or Ugly test mode using moving test patterns and images. (But as "ugly mode" only runs in reduced bandwidth or RB-TV mode, you will need a MiniTiouner to receive it.)



To use your Portsdown as a "proper" DATV transmitter you need the following components:

LCD TouchScreen

The touchscreen is required to control the transmitter without the use of another computer. The supported touchscreen is a 3.5 inch diagonal Waveshare Raspberry Pi LCD (Model A, not Model B). This is available from a number of suppliers for just under £20. It uses a resistive touch panel and has a resolution of 480*320.

Get it from Amazon: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Waveshare-Raspberry-Resistive-Interface-Rapsberry-pi/dp/B00OZLG2YS

Mounting the LCD Touchscreen can be a challenge. This 3D print design mounts it flat to the panel: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:1941701, and this design mounts it at an angle: https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:1920486.

Note that, when mounted, none of the touchscreen sensitive areas should be in contact with the surround.

GPIO Extender Card

In the completed unit, there are 13 signals that need to be routed in or out of the GPIO interface on the RPi. Buying an extender card early in the project reduces the chance of damage to the RPi and allows these connections to be made safely. The card must break out all 40 pins of the GPIO, and have another connector on top for the LCD display.

Because of this the Portsdown team have designed a PCB for the job - the blank PCB is available from the BATC shop.

Screw t.jpg

The BATC card is very simple to construct with no components other than plugs and sockets.

You can buy the GPIO Extender Card blank PCB from the Portsdown section in the BATC shop - item 6
For a full list of suppliers for the plugs and sockets and construction details see the GPIO breakout wiki page

IQ Filter and Modulator Board

The filter modulator board has been designed specifically for the Portsdown project. It takes the digital output from the Raspberry Pi and uses it to modulate the LO input from the ADF4351 module - the challenge has been to design a board that will cope with a wide range of symbol rates from 125 KS/s to 5 MS/s.

For more details see the Filter Modulator wiki page.

2-3 Filter-Modulator.jpg


Ready assembled and tested Filter Modulator boards are also available from the BATC Shop - item 2.
The board is also available as a blank PCBs for home construction but contains a large number of surface mount components - BATC shop item 3.  For more details on the board see the wiki page.

Synthesized Local Oscillator Source

The filter modulator board requires an on frequency local oscillator signal and the Portsdown transmitter software has been designed to control an ADF4351 chip to give an output on 146, 437 and 23cms. Small PCBs with the IC and a reference oscillator are available from China through eBay. Be careful to buy the ones with black PCB lacquer and the 5x2 way connector – the green ones with the in-line connector have a reputation for being re-badged ADF4350s which do not have the same frequency range.

Adf4351.jpg

It is possible to buy ADF4351 modules with a 10 or 25 MHz reference oscillator - the Portsdown software can handle either but you will need to set which oscillator you have during the initial set up. Note that the boards take a 5V supply - the pin labelled 3v3 is a low current regulated output.

ADF4351 Synthesized Oscillator:  Source from eBay (Remember to go for one of the black boards with the 5x2 connector.) http://www.ebay.co.uk/sch/i.html?_from=R40&_sacat=0&_nkw=adf4351&_oac=1

Local Oscillator Filters

Testing has shown that, due to the square wave output of the ADF4351, filtering is needed between the output of the ADF4351 module and the modulator board LO input when used on 146 and 437 MHz. This filter only needs to be a simple low pass filter to remove the third harmonic and no filtering is required on 23cms.

The effect of running without a high pass filter on 146 and 437 is an imbalance in the modulator resulting in reduced MER and RF performance - it does not affect the transmitted spectrum and is OK to put on air.

PD LO filter.JPG

The project team have designed a small multi band PCB automatically switched to the correct band by the Portsdown software - a blank PCB is available from the BATC shop - item 4
Details of this and other filters are available here.


You now have the components for a fully working Portsdown transmitter.


However, you will need a camera and audio input to transmit pictures and sound.

Raspberry Pi Camera

If you want to transmit live pictures you will need a camera. The standard Pi camera gives excellent results but will need mounting in a housing.

Raspberry Pi Camera: CPC Farnell http://cpc.farnell.com/raspberry-pi/rpi-8mp-camera-board/raspberry-pi-camera-board-8mp/dp/SC14028

Optional camera Extension Lead Kit

The RPi camera gives excellent results, but only comes with a short ribbon cable to connect it to the RPi.

It is possible to use some higher quality HDMI leads (the ground connections all need to be made) to extend the camera lead - this does NOT mean the signal out of the camera is HDMI, it is actually "Camera Serial Interface Type 2 (CSI-2)". We are just using HDMI cable as a useful extension lead.

Kits are available to connect a female HDMI connector to the RPi camera connector, and another female to the camera, allowing the use of domestic 1, 2 and 3m HDMI leads.

Rpi Camera HDMI Lead Extension Kit: https://www.tindie.com/products/freto/pi-camera-hdmi-cable-extension/

There are 2 modifications that can be made to enable lower quality HDMI leads (those without all the ground connections made, or even the CEC wire on pin 13 missing) to be used. Full details of these modiofications are available here.

Composite Video Capture Device

The transmitter is also capable of working with a USB-connected “EasyCap” dongle to capture PAL composite video from camcorders and analogue mixers etc.

There are at least 4 similar devices being marketed under this name on eBay, each with different chipsets, but only the Fushicai "USBTV007" brand is guaranteed to work..

To help make sure you buy a unit that will work with Portsdown we are now stocking the Fushicai USBTV007 Audio-Video Grabber which is guaranteed to work in the BATC Shop - item 8.  More information on the device can be found here.

The software version 201707220 introduced audio source switching between audio and video capture devices. A list of devices that are supported by this audio switching is here.

Audio Capture Device

eBay provides a good source for very cheap audio capture USB dongles, which can provide an audio input to go with the RPi camera.

Audio Capture Device:  Source from eBay - for example: http://www.ebay.co.uk/sch/Laptop-Desktop-Accessories/31530/i.html?_from=R40&_nkw=usb%20audio%20adapter&_dcat=75518&Channels=2%252E0&rt=nc&_trksid=p2045573.m1684

The software version 201707220 introduced audio source switching between audio and video capture devices. A list of devices that are supported by this audio switching is here.


That completes the basic Portsdown transmitter shopping list


However, the team has design some additional components to enable you to build a complete DATV transmit system

Filters and PA drivers

It is absolutely essential that the Portsdown transmitter output is followed by suitable bandpass filters.

These are not included as part of the project but a number of designs and suppliers are listed here.

PTT and Band Switching

The Portsdown provides band switching and PTT outputs on 2 of the GPIO pins - these outputs need to be decoded to provide an output for each band.

Band decoder.JPG


The Portsdown team have designed a simple board which can be either constructed on 0.1” perforated board (veroboard) or on a PCB - this can be home etched. Full details on the board including circuit etc are available here.

Blank PCBs are available in the BATC shop - item 5.

Hardware shutdown

In order to prevent SD card corruption by just removing the power to shut the system down, it is recommended that you include a shutdown switch.

When the facility is enabled (not by default), Pin 15 on the GPIO port signals the RPi to shutdown cleanly.

It is held low by a pulldown resistor in the RPi; when taken to 3.3v through a pushbutton it will command the RPi to shutdown. The signal on pin 13 can be used to illuminate an LED through a current limiting resistor. This LED illuminates when the RPi is active, and extinguishes when the software has shutdown and it is ready for power-off.